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Evidence Based References

  1. Center for Responsive Politics “Open Secrets” – Nonpartisan, independent and nonprofit, the Center for Responsive Politics is the nation’s premier research group tracking money in U.S. politics and its effect on elections and public policy.
    www.opensecrets.org 
  2. Govtrack – Publishes the status of federal legislation, information about your representative and senators in Congress including voting records, and original research on legislation and congressional oversight & investigations.
    www.govtrack.us
  3. The Trace – Is an independent, nonprofit news organization dedicated to expanding coverage of guns in the United States.
    www.thetrace.org
  1. Sharon Beder, “Global Spin”
    Vermont: Chelsea Green Publishing Company, 2002.
  2. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) provides a forum in which governments can work together to share experiences and seek solutions to common problems. They work with governments to understand what drives economic, social and environmental change. They measure productivity and global flows of trade and investment. They analyze and compare data to predict future trends. We set international standards on a wide range of things, from agriculture and tax to the safety of chemicals.
    www.oecd.org
  3. Inequality.org– has been tracking inequality related news and views for nearly two decades. A project of the Institute for Policy Studies since 2011, their site aims to provide information and insights for readers ranging from educators and journalists to activists and policy makers.
    www.inequality.org
  4. Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (FAIR), the national media watch group, has been offering well-documented criticism of media bias and censorship since 1986. They work to invigorate the First Amendment , advocating for greater diversity in the press and scrutinizing media practices that marginalize public interest, minority and dissenting viewpoints. As an anticensorship organization, they expose neglected news stories and defend working journalists when they are muzzled. As a progressive group, FAIR believes that structural reform is ultimately needed to break up the dominant media conglomerates, establish independent public broadcasting and promote strong non-profit sources of information.
    www.fair.org
  1. Naomi Oreskes et.al., “Merchants of Doubt”. New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2012.
  2. The Environmental Data & Governance Initiative (EDGI)– is an organization comprised of academics and non-profit employees that promotes open and accessible government data and information along with evidence-based policy making.
    www.envirodatagov.org
  3. Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS)– UCS was founded in 1969 by scientists and students at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Their staff experts believe that rigorous analysis is the best way to understand the world’s pressing problems and develop effective solutions to them.
    www.ucsusa.org
  1. Rachel L. Carson, “Silent Spring”. New York:Houghton Mifflin Company, 1962.

  2. Theo Colborn et.al., “Our Stolen Future”. New York: Penguin Group, 1997.

  3. Gerardo Ceballos et.al., “The Annihilation of Nature”. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 2015.

  4. Peter Wadhams, “A Farewell to Ice”. New York: Oxford University Press, 2017.

  5. Jennifer Lindsey et.al., “Jane Goodall: 40 Years at Gombe”– A Tribute to Four Decades of Wildlife Research, Education , and Conservation:Harry N. Abrams, 1999.

  6. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) – is the United Nations body for assessing the science related to climate change.
    www.ipcc.ch

  7. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)– mission is to provide the public with accurate and timely news and information about Earth’s changing climate, along with current data and visualizations, presented from the unique perspective of NASA, one of the world’s leading climate research.
    www.climate.nasa.gov

  8. The Silent Spring Institute– Silent Spring Institute began in 1994, after members of the Massachusetts Breast Cancer Coalition called for a scientifically sound investigation into elevated breast cancer rates on Cape Cod. They founded “a laboratory of their own” and named it Silent Spring Institute in tribute to Rachel Carson. Silent Spring Institute provides a database on the 216 different chemicals shown to cause mammary gland cancer in animals, including individual study results, chemical regulatory status, and likely sources of exposure. It provides another searchable database on the 450 primary epidemiological research articles on breast cancer and environmental pollutants.
    www.silentspring.org

  9. The Endocrine Disruption Exchange (TEDX)-TEDX, founded by Dr. Theo Colborn, is an international nonprofit organization dedicated to compiling and disseminating the scientific evidence on the health and environmental problems caused by low-level exposure to chemicals that interfere with development and function, called endocrine disruptors. Resources include information on chemicals in natural gas operations.
    www.endocrinedisruption.org

  10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)– CDC increases the health security of our nation. As the nation’s health protection agency, CDC saves lives and protects people from health threats.
    www.cdc.gov

  11. International Union for Conservation of nature (IUCN)– provides public, private and non-governmental organizations with the knowledge and tools that enable human progress, economic development and nature conservation to take place together.
    www.iucn.org

  12. Center for Biological Diversity– For over 25 years, the Center for Biological Diversity systematically and ambitiously uses biological data, legal expertise, and the citizen petition provision of the powerful Endangered Species Act to obtain sweeping, legally binding new protections for animals, plants, and their habitat.
    www.biologicaldiversity.org

  13. The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation– is an international nonprofit organization that protects the natural world through the conservation of invertebrates and their habitats.
    www.xerces.org

BYU Library– A Library Resource Guide”.

It is extremely important you develop evaluation skills to assist you in identifying credible, trustworthy Web sites and their content in order to get to evidence based facts.

According to BYU Library there are five (5) criteria that should be applied when evaluating any Website: 1. The look and feel of the website ; 2. The URL of your result ; 3. Are there advertisements on the site? ; 4. Check the links on the page ; 5. Check when the page was last updated.

In your search for information, you eventually face the challenge of evaluating the resources you have located and selecting those you judge to be most appropriate for your needs. Examine each information source you locate and assess sources using the above criteria.

In evaluating credibility and usefulness because no two websites are created the same way the important things you want to consider when looking at a website:

The look and feel of the website – Reliable websites usually have a more professional look and feel than personal Web sites.

The URL of your results – The .com, .edu, .gov, .net, and .org all actually mean something and can help you to evaluate the website!

  • Informational Resources are those which present factual information. These are usually sponsored by educational institutions or governmental agencies. (These resources often include .edu or .gov.)
  • Advocacy Resources are those sponsored by an organization that is trying to sell ideas or influence public opinion. (These resources may include .org within the URL.)
  • Business or Marketing Resources are those sponsored by a commercial entity that is trying to sell products. These pages are often very biased, but can provide useful information. (You will usually find .com within the URL of these resources.)
  • News Resources are those which provide extremely current information on hot topics. Most of the time news sources are not as credible as academic journals, and newspapers range in credibility from paper to paper. (The URL will usually include .com.)
  • Personal Web Pages/Resources are sites such as social media sites: blogs, Twitter pages, Facebook, etc. These sources can be helpful to determine what people are saying on a topic and what discussions are taking place. Exercise great caution if trying to incorporate these sources directly into an academic paper. Very rarely, if ever, will they hold any weight in the scholarly community.

Are there advertisements on the site? – Advertisements can indicate that the information may be less reliable.

Check the links on the page – Broken or incorrect links can mean that no one is taking care of the site and that other information on it may be out-of-date or unreliable.

Check when the page was last updated – Dates when pages were last updated are valuable clues to its currency and accuracy.

www.library.nmu.edu/guides